DNA Marin-Saavedra Leonardo: European: 48%. America (Native American): 37%. African: 13%. This is a medical scientific study conducted of the Archbishop Leonardo by (made from United States): USA Ancestry
Other regions commonly seen in people native to the Iberian Peninsula region:
From a collection of 125 people - Region % of natives that have this region.
Italy and Greece: 69%. Great Britain: 38%. Ireland: 33%. Africa North: 20%. Europe West: 18%. Europe East: 6%. Scandinavia: 6%. Middle East: 3%. Finland and Northwest Russia: 2%. Native American: 1%. European Jewish: 1%.
Population History (People of prehistoric Iberia):
The Iberian Peninsula has been inhabited for more than a million years, from the Paleolithic Cro-Magnon and Neanderthals to modern Homo sapiens. A number of Iberian civilizations had developed by the Bronze Age and were trading with other Mediterranean communities. Celtic tribes arrived from central Europe and settled in the northern and western parts of the peninsula, intermixing with the local populations. Phoenician colonies (later controlled by the powerful Carthaginians) dotted the Mediterranean coast. The Greeks named the region “Iberia,” after the Ebro River.
Bronze Age Iberia showing Celtic and Iberian tribes.
Tartessian (residual), Celtic – Turdetanian. Aquitanian... Indo-European (pre-Celtic), Iberian.
The Carthaginians were the naval superpower of their day, controlling most of the maritime trade in the western Mediterranean. They ran afoul of the growing Roman Empire in the 3rd century B.C., however. Local disputes between city-states in Sicily escalated into a broader conflict between the two empires, triggering the Punic Wars (264 B.C. to 146 B.C.).
Rome launched a number of campaigns to conquer the remainder of the peninsula, bringing most of the region under Roman rule. Latin replaced almost all of the locally spoken languages and eventually evolved into modern Spanish and Portuguese. One exception is the Basque language, which survived in the remote foothills of the Pyrenees. Many scholars believe Basque pre-dates the arrival of the Indo-European languages, brought by the Celtic and Iberian tribes during the Bronze Age.
North Africa remained part of the Roman and Byzantine Empires for centuries after the defeat of Carthage. But in the late 7th century, the region was conquered by the Umayyad Caliphate, a vast Muslim empire based in Syria. The North African Muslims consisted mostly of indigenous Berbers and an Arab minority, collectively called "Moors" by the Europeans.
Illustration of Tariq ibn Ziyad: A Muslim general who led the Islamic conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711-718 A.D. He is considered to be one of the most important military commanders in Iberian history.
The duration of Muslim rule varied, lasting only a few decades in the north and nearly 800 years in the south. Al-Andalus broke away from the Caliphate after the overthrow of the Umayyads in Syria and became an independent emirate ruled by a succession of Muslim dynasties. From 722 to 1492, the Christian kingdoms of the north relentlessly fought to regain control of the peninsula in a campaign called “the Reconquista” (or re-conquest), but they made limited headway until the 13th century. By then, Muslim rule had fractured into a number of smaller, competing emirates, which made them more vulnerable.
Age of discovery:
In 1469, the Christian Kingdoms of Leon, Castile, and Aragon were brought together by the marriage of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand II. Although the thrones technically remained separate, their royal union created a new political entity, España (spain), laying the foundation for the modern Kingdom of Spain. Portugal was also established as a distinct country at this time, and the boundaries between the two nations have remained virtually unchanged since then.
Did You Know?
The Portuguese explorer, Bartholomew Dias, was the first European to sail around the southern tip of Africa. He named it the "Cape of Storms," but it is now called the Cape of Good Hope.
How Leonardo Marin-Saavedra compares to the typical person native to the Italy/Greece region?
Leonardo Marin-Saavedra: 12%. Typical native: 72%.
Genetic Diversity in the Italy/Greece Region:
The people living in the Italy/Greece region are admixed, which means that when creating genetic ethnicity estimates for individual’s native to this area, we frequently see some similarities to DNA profiles from other nearby regions. We’ve found that approximately 72% of the typical native’s DNA comes from this region.
Examples of people native to the Italy/Greece region:
From a collection of 205 people…
Other regions commonly seen in people native to the Italy and Greece region
Population History (Prehistoric Italy/Greece):
The history of this region is dominated by two titans: the Greeks and the Romans. During the height of the Classical Era, the Greeks introduced cultural, civic and philosophical ideas and innovations that heavily influenced the Roman Empire and, in turn, laid the foundations of Western civilization. Ancient Greece was settled by four different Greek-speaking groups. During the Bronze Age, Mycenaean Greece of Homer's epics consisted of the Achaeans, Aeolians and Ionians. It was one of the great powers of its time. The remaining group, the Dorians, rose to prominence around 1100 B.C. when the Mycenaean civilization collapsed. The influence of these groups spread beyond mainland Greece to the western coastline of modern Turkey and the islands of the Aegean Sea.
The Greeks also founded colonies in southern Italy and Sicily. Called Magna Graecia in Latin, these settlements existed alongside the native tribes of the Italian peninsula, including the Etruscans, Umbrian’s and Latins. The Latins would later build their capital in Rome, drawing heavily on the culture of their Greek neighbors.
Colonies of Italy and Greece:
Besides Sicily and southern Italy, the Greeks established many more colonies around the Mediterranean, from approximately 750 B.C. until 500 B.C., established as small city-states, most of these colonies were trading outposts. Others were created by refugees when Greek cities were overrun and the displaced inhabitants looked for new land. More than 90 Greek colonies were established, from Ukraine and Russia to the north, Turkey to the east, southern Spain in the west, and Egypt and Libya in the south.
His triumph was short-lived, however; he died on his campaign and his conquered territories were divided among his generals. But many important Greek cities and colonies were established and remained under Greek rule, including Seleucia, Antioch and Alexandria.
Division of Alexander's Empire Ptolemaic Kingdom - Seleucid Empire - Kingdom of Pergamon - Macedonia. Epirus - Other Territories - Roman Republic - Carthaginian Republic - Epirus-controlled territory.
While Greece spread its influence eastward, the small city of Rome was growing into a regional power in Italy. As the Roman Republic expanded, it established colonies of Roman citizens to maintain control of newly conquered lands. By the time Julius Caesar seized power from the Senate, the Roman war machine was nearly unstoppable. Soldiers who served for years in the military were rewarded with land in Roman colonies throughout the empire, which stretched from Turkey and the Middle East to Spain and northern France.
Romulus Augustulus resigns the Crown before Odoacer. Project Gutenberg's Young Folks' History of Rome by Charlotte Mary Yonge
From around 610 A.D. to 867 A.D., the Byzantine Empire was attacked by numerous groups, including the Persians, Lombards, Avars, Slavs, Arabs, Normans, Franks, Goths and Bulgars. During the 8th and 9th centuries, the empire slowly freed Greece from these invaders. The Slavs had the most success at establishing permanent settlements in Greece, although they, too, were eventually defeated and banished from the Greek peninsula. During this time, Greek-speaking people from Sicily and Asia Minor migrated to Greece, and a large number of Sephardic Jews emigrated from Spain to Greece, as well.
Italy in the Middle Ages:
Did You Know?
Togas weren’t worn by everyone in ancient Rome. After the 2nd century B.C., only freeborn Roman men were allowed to wear them as a symbol of their citizenship. The Greeks were the first to develop an alphabet with vowels and it has been used to write the Greek language since 800 B.C.
Primarily located in Belgium, France, Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland, Luxembourg and Liechtenstein. Also found in: England, Denmark, Italy, Slovenia and Czech Republic.
How Leonardo Marin-Saavedra compares to the typical person native to the Europe West region
Genetic Diversity in the Europe West Region:
Examples of people native to the Europe West region
Other regions commonly seen in people native to the Europe West region
We have used our reference panel to build a genetic profile for Europe West. The blue chart above shows examples of ethnicity estimates for people native to this region. For Europe West we see an extremely wide range—most natives have between 20% and 68% of their DNA showing similarity to this region's profile. Some individuals show 100% similarity, but it’s also possible to find people whose DNA shows little or no similarity. This is most likely due to the fact that this area has not experienced any long-term periods of isolation. Since only 48% of the typical native’s DNA comes from this region, there are major genetic influences from other regions, such as Great Britain, Scandinavia, Italy/Greece, Europe East and more (see chart above, in green).
Population History (Prehistoric Western Europe):
Celtic and Germanic tribes:
This map shows the expansion of Celtic tribes by 275 A.D. (in light green) from their presumed origin, the Bronze Age Hallstatt culture (in yellow). Dark green areas show regions where Celtic languages are still spoken today.
For the most part, by 400 A.D., Western Europe was split between the Roman Empire and the restless Germanic tribes to the northeast. Celtic culture and influence still held sway in parts of the British Isles, and the Basque language continued to survive in the Pyrenees. It is interesting to note that the Basque share genetic similarities to the Celts of Ireland and Scotland, despite being culturally and linguistically dissimilar and geographically separated. While the exact relationship of the groups is difficult to determine, this does highlight the interesting interplay between genetic origin and ethno-linguistic identity.
The Migration Period:
The Frankish Kingdom:
Statue of Charlemagne. By Agostino Cornacchini (1725) - Located at St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican.
Division of the Frankish Empire Among Charlemagne's Grandsons, 843 A.D. Charles the Bald – Lothair - Louis the German
Additional cultures of note:
Did You Know?
Great Britain. Primarily located in England, Scotland and Wales.
How Leonardo Marin-Saavedra compares to the typical person native to the Great Britain region
Genetic Diversity in the Great Britain Region
Examples of people native to the Great Britain region
Other regions commonly seen in people native to the Great Britain region
Population History (Prehistoric Britain):
Germanic tribes invade:
The region was divided into several kingdoms, with the more powerful kings sometimes exerting influence or control over smaller bordering kingdoms. There was nothing like a single, unified English kingdom, however, until the early 10th century and the rise of the House of Wessex.
Viking invasions and the Danelaw:
Danish Vikings began to invade northern and eastern England in 876 and eventually came to control a third of the country, defeating several smaller Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. The rulers of the Danelaw, as the Viking area became known, struggled for nearly 80 years with the remaining English kings over the region. The balance of power swung back and forth a number of times, with an English king, Edward the Elder, gaining the upper hand in the early 900s and a Danish king, Cnut the Great, ruling England, Norway and Denmark from 1016 to 1035. After the deaths of Cnut’s sons, the throne returned to Anglo-Saxon control, but it was short-lived, as Edward the Confessor died without an heir. The Normans of France, led by William the Conqueror, sailed across the English Channel and claimed the throne of England, defeating the only other rival, Harold Godwinson, at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. In 1067, William extended his control to Scotland and Wales.
The Houses of Plantagenet & Tudor:
The British Empire:
During the 1760’s and 1770’s the relationship between the colonies in the Americas and Britain grew fractious due to the British Parliament’s attempts to tax colonists without representation in Parliament. This led to the American War of Independence with and the Thirteen Colonies gaining independence and forming a new nation, the United States of America.
Did You Know?
European Jewish: Primarily located in Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Russia, Hungary and Israel. Also found in: Germany, France, Lithuania, Latvia, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Bosnia, Serbia and Estonia.
How Leonardo Marin-Saavedra compares to the typical person native to the European Jewish region
Genetic Diversity in the European Jewish Region:
Examples of people native to the European Jewish region
Other regions commonly seen in people native to the European Jewish region
Population History (Origin of the Jews):
Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire, capturing the Levant in 333 B.C. When his territories were divided after his death, Judea became part of the Seleucid Empire. The Judeans were commanded to accept Greek polytheism, leading to rebellion. Fighting for years under Judas Maccabee, the Judeans won the right to rededicate the Temple, an event commemorated by the holiday of Hanukkah.
The Roman period:
Destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem by Francesco Hayez depicts the destruction of the Second Temple by Roman soldiers.
By the 2nd century, Jews were located throughout the Roman Empire. By the 5th century, there were scattered communities from Spain in the west to the Byzantine Empire in the east. Because Jews were usually restricted by law from owning land, they turned toward occupations in commerce, education and medicine.
Did You Know?
America (Native American): 37%. The Native American: Primarily located in: North America, Central America and South America.
How Leonardo Marin-Saavedra compares to the typical person native to the Native American region
Genetic Diversity in the Native American Region:
Examples of people native to the Native American region
Other regions commonly seen in people native to the Native American region
The first contact with Europeans likely came when Leif Erickson and his Icelandic Vikings established a temporary settlement in Canada. But it wasn’t until Christopher Columbus arrived 500 years later that European colonists began exploring and settling the region in earnest. Early Spanish explorers like Hernando Cortes, Juan Ponce de Leon and Hernando de Soto brought things the indigenous population had never seen before, such as horses, guns and smallpox. With no natural immunity to European diseases and no way to compete with the newcomers’ superior firepower, many Native Americans died or were pushed out of their ancestral lands.
Later, the United States government adopted a policy of “civilizing” native tribes, encouraging indigenous people to give up many of their traditional ways so members could be assimilated into American society. As settlers continued moving westward, many tribes were relocated. However, there are still many Native American groups throughout North America that retain their indigenous languages and traditions, particularly in northern Canada and in Mexico. A few, like the Pima, who live along the Gila and Salt Rivers in modern-day Arizona, were able to keep at least parts of their traditional territory.
Migrations into this region:
Current research has shown that there were also two other migrations. Members of one of those groups, the Eskimo-Aleut speakers, derive 50% of their DNA from the initial natives and are located in Alaska. The second group, the Chipewyan, speaks a Na-Dene language and derives 90% of their DNA from the initial natives. The Chipewyan live in Canada.
Migrations within the region:
Arctic - Great Basin – Mesoamerican – Subarctic – Plateau – Caribbean - Northeast Woodlands - Northwest Coast – Andean – Southeast – California – Amazonian – Plains – Southwest - Southern Core (Cono).
nds roughly from today’s central Mexico through Central America and into northern Costa Rica. This group is defined by a mosaic of cultural traits that were developed and shared by its indigenous cultures. When they domesticated turkeys and dogs and learned to cultivate maize, beans, squash and chilies, the Mesoamerican cultures evolved from Paleo-Indian, hunter-gatherer, tribal living into settled agricultural villages.
Southern Cone (Cono):
Did You Know?
How Leonardo Marin-Saavedra compares to the typical person native to the Cameroon/Congo region
Genetic Diversity in the Cameroon/Congo Region:
Examples of people native to the Cameroon/Congo region
We’ve used our reference panel to build a genetic profile for the Cameroon/Congo region. The blue chart above shows examples of ethnicity estimates for people native to the region. For Cameroon/Congo we see a fairly narrow range: for most people native to the area, between 83% and 100% of their DNA looks similar to the profile. However, we also found people with as little as 45% of their DNA coming from the region. The other regions most commonly found are the neighboring Nigeria and Africa Southeastern Bantu regions. About 21% of people from the Cameroon/Congo region have at least some DNA from these regions. (See green chart above.)
In north-central Cameroon, a high range of rugged mountains stretches across the country from west to east. To the far south and east, in the vast Congo River Basin, the environment consists of dense rainforest and wide waterways. These features have created a degree of isolation and served as a barrier to frequent or large-scale migrations or conquests.
Besides the Grasslands tribes, a smaller number of people live in the southern and central regions of Cameroon and in Congo-Brazzaville (Republic of Congo) and Congo-Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo). However, many of the ethnic groups found in the two Congo’s are of Bantu origin—meaning they share a common ancestral language and an ancestral homeland on the western border of modern Cameroon and Nigeria. The Bantu peoples began migrating from Cameroon in about 1000 B.C. Some went east across Africa and then south; some settled the Congo River Basin; and some went south along the coast to Angola. These Bantu groups have a genetic ethnicity better represented by the Southeastern Bantu region profile.
The slave trade:
The 19th and 20th centuries:
Did You Know?
Ivory Coast and Ghana: 3%. Primarily located in: Ivory Coast and Ghana. Also found in: Benin, Togo, Mali, Nigeria and Senegal.
Early French and Portuguese explorers identified sections of the West African coast by the area’s resources, which is how Côte d'Ivoire, or Ivory Coast, got its name. Neighboring Ghana was known as the Gold Coast until it won independence from colonial rule in 1957 and renamed itself after a medieval West African empire. Today, more than 46 million people live in the two countries, which depend less on gold and ivory than they do chocolate: Ivory Coast and Ghana produce more than half of the world’s cocoa.
Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers: 1%.. Primarily located in South Africa, Namibia, Botswana and Congo. Also found in Angola, Zambia, Tanzania, Kenya
How Leonardo Marin-Saavedra compares to the typical person native to the Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers region
Genetic Diversity in the Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers Region
Examples of people native to the Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers region
Other regions commonly seen in people native to the Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers region
Population History (Geography as destiny):
Though the Khoe tend to have hierarchical cultures based on livestock wealth, the San have no hierarchy, share all things and make all decisions by consensus, even if reaching agreement takes a long time. Both cultures are oral in nature—they have no written language—but have distinctive art forms and language. The Khoisan languages are known for their distinctive clicks; however, their languages are unrelated to nearby Bantu languages such as Zulu and Xhosa, which have adopted some Khoisan click consonants.
The Baka and Mbuti:
Portrait of a Baka man (1879). Photo by Richard Buchta - Courtesy of Pitt Rivers Museum in southern Sudan.
Colonial and modern eras:
Did You Know?
Senegal: Primarily located in Senegal and the Gambia. Also found in: Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Mali and Mauritania.
How Leonardo Marin-Saavedra compares to the typical person native to the Senegal region
Genetic Diversity in the Senegal Region:
Examples of people native to the Senegal region:
Other regions commonly seen in people native to the Senegal region
View of Gorée Island off the coast of Senegal
The French took control of Senegal in the 19th century, while the Gambia became a British colony. Senegal gained independence in 1960; the Gambia, in 1965.
Migrations and ethnic groups in the Senegal region:
Did You Know?
Benin and Togo: Primarily located in Benin and Togo. Also found in Ghana, Nigeria and Mali.
How Leonardo Marin-Saavedra compares to the typical person native to the Benin/Togo region
Genetic Diversity in the Benin and Togo Region:
Examples of people native to the Benin/Togo region:
Other regions commonly seen in people native to the Benin/Togo region:
Benin’s largest ethnic group is the Fon (39%), followed by the Adja (15%), Yoruba (12%) and Bariba (9%). Togo’s largest ethnic groups are the Ewe (21%), Kabye (12%), Mina (3.2%) and Kotokoli (3.2%). Benin has more ethnic ties to its neighbor Nigeria; Togo has more links to Ghana. These ethnic ties are the result of long-standing kingdoms that flourished before European colonists created new borders.
Combat de Dogba, 19 September, 1892, by Alexandre d'Albéca, depicting a battle during the Second War of Dahomey.
Please note that genetic ethnicity estimates are based on individuals living in this region today. While a prediction of genetic ethnicity from this region suggests a connection to the groups occupying this location, it is not conclusive evidence of membership to any particular tribe or ethnic group.
Did You Know?
How Leonardo Marin-Saavedra compares to the typical person native to the Caucasus region
Genetic Diversity in the Caucasus Region:
Examples of people native to the Caucasus region
Other regions commonly seen in people native to the Caucasus region:
The Burning of Troy by Johann Georg Trautmann
Much of the Caucasus region is Muslim. Shia Islam is the official state religion of Iran, while the Sunni branch is predominant in the Caucasus groups of the north, such as the Nogay (also Nogai), Adyghe and Chechens. Modern-day Turkey is a secular nation, but the vast majority of the population is Muslim, including the Kurds in the southeast. Georgia and Armenia have a long history of Christianity, being two of the earliest nations to adopt it. Along with Azerbaijan, they were part of the former Soviet Union (USSR). Since the dissolution of the USSR, continual border disputes contribute to a tense atmosphere.
Migrations into this region:
Migrations from this region:
Portrait of Genghis Khan, from an album depicting several Yuan emperors, now located in the National Palace Museum in Taipei